E-learning & resources

HTMSE provides tailored courses covering a vast cross section of topics to a global network of professionals and stakeholders. Our online resources and publications provides educational material and information to professionals working in the counter human trafficking and modern slavery sector. Our training is provided my leading practitioners in their field.

Examples of training provided include:

  • Expert Witness training
  • Criminal law, forced criminality and non prosecution of victims of human trafficking
  • Immigration and public law
  • Housing and support
  • Compensation claim for victims of human trafficking
  • Modern slavery compliance and ethical supply chains for businesses
  • Law enforcement
  • Local Authority training
  • Training for health care professionals


If you are interested in tailored training courses, please email us at info@humantraffickingexperts.com to discuss your training needs.

Detaining Victims: Human Trafficking and the UK Immigration Detention System

In July 2019 the Labour Exploitation Advisory Group (LEAG) released a report looking at the experiences of victims of human trafficking whilst they are detained in the UK immigration detention system. The report gave particular attention to the barriers that hinder the identification of victims of human trafficking, both prior to and during detention, the impact of detention on National Referral Mechanism (NRM) decision making, and the physical and mental health of the victims who have been detained. The report concludes by setting out recommendations for improvement.

The main findings and recommendations of the report are as follows:

  1. The main barriers to victim identification are a lack of understanding by authorities as to what constitutes human trafficking and poor assessments of detainee’s vulnerability, and the language barriers faced by victims leading to a difficulty in communicating rights and reporting abuse. The recommendations to these barriers include comprehensive training for officials involved in immigration detention and the NRM gatekeepers surrounding indicators of human trafficking. Recommendations also include offering greater advice and support support to victims regarding reviews of their detention and over any decisions for them to enter the NRM.
  2. Further barriers identified during detention concern the training of immigration detention centre staff, which fails to address the identification of victims of trafficking, and a lack of transparency in data showing the number of potential victims in the detention system thus reducing the capacity for evidence based policy. Recommendations are predominately aimed at increasing the training for staff involved in immigration detention and the quarterly publication of data on potential victims of trafficking in immigration detention.
  3. Issues surrounding the NRM process were also highlighted, in particular the length of time it takes for determinations to be made, and the continued detention of potential victims with positive reasonable grounds decisions. Further issues include the increased likelihood of detainees receiving negative determinations. Proposed recommendations include reducing the focus on inconsistencies in accounts, the responsibility for referrals should not be made by the Home Office who maintain responsibility for immigration enforcement, and a strict limit imposed on the amount of time a potential victim of trafficking might be detained.
  4. Immigration detention can have a significant impact on the physical and mental health of those detained, especially victims of trafficking. Recommendations proposed include and independent review of how detention impacts victims of human trafficking and removing the requirement for victims to report report to the Home Office while awaiting a conclusive grounds decision.


The above lists some of the main findings and proposed recommendations outlined in the report. More information on each of these findings can be found in the full report which can be accessed here.

UK Government Response to the Independent Review of the Modern Slavery Act

In July 2019 the UK Government released it’s response to the Independent Review of the Modern Slavery Act 2015, which was published earlier in the year. The Review appointed experts to advise on the following four sections of the act, making a total of 80 recommendations:

  1. The Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner (s 40-44)
  2. Transparency in Supply Chains (s 54)
  3. Independent Child Trafficking Advocates (s 48)
  4. Legal Application (specifically s 3 on the meaning of exploitation, s 8-10
    on Slavery and Trafficking Reparation Orders and s 45 on the statutory defence).


The response to the Independent Review sets out several actions the UK Government will be taking to address some of the recommendations, including the launching of a public consultation about transparency in supply chains and the development of a new modern slavery policy and evidence centre.

The full UK Government response can be found here.


Counting lives: Responding to children who are criminally exploited

A new report from the Children’s Society addresses the criminal exploitation of children and acts as a “call to action” for professionals to recognise instances of child criminal exploitation and develop and promote co-ordinated safeguarding response. The key findings of the report are collected into three main areas:

  1. The grooming and exploitation of children;
  2. Children coming into contact with statutory agencies; and
  3. Responses to children who are criminally exploited.


After presenting the key findings the report also gives four key recommendations that can be implemented at central and local government level, and are designed to disrupt the criminal exploitation of children. The key recommendations are:

  1. The law should be clarified to ensure that all children who are groomed, coerced and
    controlled into committing crime are recognised as victims of exploitation;
  2. Statutory agencies should have access to appropriate resources to identify and
    support victims of child criminal exploitation;
  3. The introduction of new local safeguarding partnerships should be seen as an
    opportunity to ensure that multi-agency arrangements are structured in a way to
    identify and respond to child criminal exploitation;
  4. Data collection and recording around child criminal exploitation should be improved to
    ensure more accurate understanding of scale and prevalence and the effectiveness of


The report was compiled using a mixed methods approach including a literature review, freedom of information requests to a variety of law enforcement and government actors, and interviews with professionals and practitioners.

The full report can be viewed here.


Independent Review of the Modern Slavery Act 2015

The Independent Review of the Modern Slavery Act 2015 has was published this week on the 22nd May 2019. The review has identified eighty recommendations for improvements to the operation of the act and wider policies to tackle modern slavery and human trafficking in the United Kingdom. The review makes significant recommendations for how legislation should be amended to increase compliance by businesses and improve supply chain transparency, including:

  • Recommendation 25: Failure to fulfil modern slavery statement reporting requirements or to act when instances of slavery are found should be an offence under the Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986.
  • Recommendation 22: The legislation should be amended to require companies to consider the entirety of their supply chains [in respect of modern slavery]. If a company has not done so, it should be required to explain why it has not and what steps it is going to take in the future.
  • Recommendation 18: In section 54(5) ‘may’ should be changed to ‘must’ or ‘shall’, with the effect that the six areas set out as areas that an organisation’s statement may cover will become mandatory. If a company determines that one of the headings is not applicable to their business, it should be required to explain why.
  • Recommendation 32: Section 54 should be extended to the public sector. Government departments should publish a [modern slavery] statement at the end of the financial year, approved by the Department’s board and signed by the Permanent Secretary as Accounting Officer. Local government, agencies and other public authorities should publish a statement if their annual budget exceeds £36 million.

The recommendations would significantly increase the responsibility on businesses to address anti-slavery in their supply chains, and afford the government greater power to punish companies that do not comply.

The full report can be found here.

‘Between Two Fires’: Understanding Vulnerabilities and the Support Needs of People from Albania, Viet Nam and Nigeria who have experienced Human Trafficking into the UK

This report is the product of a two years study examining causes and dynamics of, and vulnerabilities to, human trafficking in Albania, Vietnam and Nigeria. The study also looked at the specific support needs of individuals trafficked from each of these source countries. This report was produced by the IOM, and Institute of Applied Social Research.

The study makes use of qualitative data taken from 164 semi-structures interviews with adults with experience of human trafficking and key informants who have expertise on trafficking from each source country. The data collection occurred over a nine month period in 2018. The study makes use of the IOM Determinants of Migrant Vulnerability (DoMV) model as a framework within which to examine the vulnerabilities to, and ongoing support needs of victims of, human trafficking. The model looks at four levels designed to comprehensively understand the vulnerability of migrants to human trafficking. The four levels are:

  1. Individual
  2. Household and family
  3. Community
  4. Structural

The report overall presents twelve key findings including: the risk factors transcend the different levels of the IOM DoMV model; harmful social norms in each of the source countries can intersect with human trafficking, and this often occurs in gender specific ways; and, certain cultural and religious beliefs about luck and divine protection can influence decisions to embark on dangerous journeys that might increase vulnerability. The full findings of the study can be found in the report here.