E-learning & resources

HTMSE provides tailored courses covering a vast cross section of topics to a global network of professionals and stakeholders. Our online resources and publications provides educational material and information to professionals working in the counter human trafficking and modern slavery sector. Our training is provided my leading practitioners in their field.

Examples of training provided include:

  • Expert Witness training
  • Criminal law, forced criminality and non prosecution of victims of human trafficking
  • Immigration and public law
  • Housing and support
  • Compensation claim for victims of human trafficking
  • Modern slavery compliance and ethical supply chains for businesses
  • Law enforcement
  • Local Authority training
  • Training for health care professionals


If you are interested in tailored training courses, please email us at info@humantraffickingexperts.com to discuss your training needs.

Home Office National Referral Mechanism Statistics – 1st Quarter 2021 (January – March)

The Home Office has released the most recent statistics for the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) covering the first quarter of 2021.

Between January 2021 and Marh 2021, 2,945 potential modern slavery victims were referred into the NRM. This is a 3% decrease in referrals compared to the preceding quarter (3,041) and a 3% increase from quarter 1 in 2020 (2,862). 49% (1,431) of the referrals were for potential victims who claimed exploitation as adults (compared to 50% in the preceding quarter), whilst 45% (1,330) claimed exploitation as children.

Overall, of the 2,945 potential victims referred in this quarter, 75% (2,197) were male and 25% (745) were female. The Home Office notes that the proportions are similar to recent quarters, although male potential victims have formed an increasing proportion of NRM referrals over the years.

As in previous quarters, overall, potential victims were most commonly referred for criminal exploitation only, which accounted for 37% (1,097) of all referrals. For those exploited as children, an increase in the identification of ‘county lines’ cases has partially driven the increase in referrals within the criminal exploitation category.

There has been a sharp drop in referrals for overseas exploitation, likely due to the COVID-19 restrictions on travel, with 64% (1,897) of potential victims claiming exploitation in the UK only, compared to 57% in the last quarter, and with only 23% (691) claiming overseas only exploitation. The statistics show, however, that despite ongoing restrictions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, the first quarter of 2021 saw the third-highest number of quarterly referrals to the NRM since it began.

Modern Slavery: National Referral Mechanism and Duty to Notify statistics UK, end of year summary 2020

The UK Home Office has published an end of year summary for 2020 modern slavery statistics. The statistics cover both referrals into the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) and those referred via the Duty to Notify (DtN) process.

In 2020, 10,613 potential victims of modern slavery were referred to the NRM, compared to 10,616 in 2019. This is the first time when the NRM referrals had not increased since the preceding year. The summary prepared by the Home Office points out that this may be a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, noting that lockdown measures may have resulted in victims being less likely to interact with first responders.

In 2020, number of adult referrals was 5,087 (48%) whilst child referrals amounted to 4,946 (47%). 5% of referrals were of unknown age. Out of the potential victims, 26% (2,752) were female and 74% (7,826) were male. For adult potential victims, 70% (3,540) were male and 30% (1,538) were female, whilst for child potential victims, 78% (3,843) were male and 22% (1,079) were female.

The most common type of exploitation for adults was labour exploitation and for minors was criminal exploitation. Overall, criminal exploitation only, accounted for 34% (3,568) of all referrals, and an additional 15% (1,590) of cases referred for criminal exploitation combined with other exploitation types.

UK, Albanian and Vietnamese citizens remain the most common nationalities referred to the NRM.

Additionally, in 2020, the Home Office was notified of an additional 2,178 potential adult victims via the DtN process. The DtN process requires public authorities in England and Wales to notify the Home Office of potential victims who do not consent to enter the NRM.

For the full summary, please see here.

Government Response to the ‘Transparency in supply chains consultation’ – September 2020

The Government has published its response to the ‘Transparency in supply chains consultation’, covering changes to mandatory reporting for commercial organisations and extension of mandatory reporting requirements to the public sector. The Government commits to legislate on

  • Mandate specific topics for reporting
  • Introduce mandatory reporting for public bodies with a budget of £36 million or more
  • Specify that public bodies will be allowed to report inn groups and clarify how
  • Require organisations to report to a single reporting deadline
  • Clarify the requirements on Board approval for commercial organisations
  • Require statements published by public bodies to be signed off by the accounting officer, chief executive or equivalent role; and approved by the senior management body

The Government has indicated it will consider enforcement options and legislative change to introduce civil penalties for non-compliance with s.54 reporting, and the potential creation of an enforcement body.

The Government has committed that the Home Office will publish further guidance both for commercial organisation and public bodies ahead of any legislative changes. The Government also continues to develop a new Government-run reporting service which organisations will be encouraged to use before any legislative mandate.

Access the full Government response here.

National Referral Mechanism Statistics UK, 3rd Quarter 2020 – July to September

The UK Home Office has published the most recent Modern Slavery Statistics, covering quarter 3 of 2020 (July – September).

Home Office reports that 2,506 potential victims of modern slavery were referred to the NRM. 1,224 (29%) of the NRM referrals claimed exploitation as adults whilst 1,159 (46%) claimed exploitation as children. For 5% of the referral their age at exploitation was unknown.

Overall, of the 2,506 potential victims referred in this quarter, 74% (1,853) were male and 26% (647) were female; these proportions are similar to the previous quarter. For adult potential victims, 69% (849) were male and 31% (374) were female, whilst for child potential victims, 79% (912) were male and 21% (242) were female.

The statistics flag the issue of ‘county lines’ exploitation of children – with 401 referrals flagged as county lines referrals, accounting for 16% of all referrals received in the quarter. The majority (82%; 328) of these referrals were made for male children.

UK, Albanian and Vietnamese citizens remain the most common nationalities referred to the NRM.

For detailed statistics please see the government website here. 

The impact and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on trafficked and exploited persons, OHCHR, June 2020

Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, Maria Grazia Giammarinaro produced the June 2020 report “The impact and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on trafficked and exploited persons” tracking the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic on the most vulnerable communities.  

Most significantly, pre-existing vulnerabilities to trafficking have been exacerbated by the extreme social and economic impacts of the pandemic. These include: 

  • Poverty and unemployment
  • Migration, in changes in migration status, those on the migration journey and new restrictive migration policies
  • Lack of services provided to victims of trafficking and re-victimisation
  • The disruption of global supply chains
  • Trafficking and exploitation of children
  • Risks faced by victims and potential victims of sexual exploitation

The impact of the pandemic has negatively affected existing victims, as well as increasing the risk of others being preyed on by traffickers. It is clear that the COVID19 pandemic will have long term harmful impacts on exploited and trafficked persons, however the full impact is currently unfolding at yet to be determined. 

Find the June 2020 report on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on trafficked and exploited persons here. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Trafficking/COVID-19-Impact-trafficking.pdf